Libertarianisme de droite

Le libertarianisme de droite (en anglais, right-libertarianism[1],[2],[3],[4],[5], libertarian capitalism[6] ou right-wing libertarianism[1],[7],[8]) est une philosophie politique et un type de libertarianisme qui soutient fortement les droits de propriété capitalistes et défend la répartition par le marché des ressources naturelles et de la propriété privée[9].

Comme la plupart des formes de libertarianisme, il tend à soutenir les libertés publiques[1], mais aussi le droit naturel[10], les droits négatifs[11] et un renversement majeur de l'État-providence moderne[12].

Le libertarianisme de droite est opposé au libertarianisme de gauche, un type de libertarianisme qui combine souveraineté de l'individu avec une approche égalitaire des ressources naturelles[13].

Contrairement au libertarianisme socialiste[4], il tend à soutenir le capitalisme de libre marché[1].

Comme les libertariens de toutes sortes, les libertariens de droite se désignent simplement comme des « libertariens »[2],[3],[7].

Étant le type de libertarianisme le plus courant aux États-Unis[4], le libertarianisme de droite y est devenu le référent le plus courant du libertarianisme depuis la fin du 20e siècle, alors qu'historiquement et ailleurs[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19] il continue à être largement utilisé pour désigner des formes anti-étatiques de socialisme telles que l'anarchisme[20],[21],[22],[23] et plus généralement communisme libertaire/marxisme libertaire et socialisme libertaire[14],[24]. À l'époque de Murray Rothbard, qui a popularisé le terme libertarien aux États-Unis dans les années 1960, les mouvements anarcho-capitalistes ont commencé à se qualifier de libertariens, ce qui a entraîné l'apparition du terme libertariens de droite pour les distinguer[14].

Influences culturelles

Le cinéma de Clint Eastwood est parfois présenté comme ayant été un vecteur discret mais efficace de la philosophie politique radicale qu'est le libertarianisme aux États-Unis[25].

Notes et références

(en) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en anglais intitulé « Right-libertarianism » (voir la liste des auteurs).
  1. a b c et d Rothbard, Murray (1 March 1971). "The Left and Right Within Libertarianism". WIN: Peace and Freedom Through Nonviolent Action. 7 (4): 6–10. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  2. a et b Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism' and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Rothbard and Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
  3. a et b Marshall, Peter (2008). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: Harper Perennial. p. 565. "The problem with the term 'libertarian' is that it is now also used by the Right. [...] In its moderate form, right libertarianism embraces laissez-faire liberals like Robert Nozick who call for a minimal State, and in its extreme form, anarcho-capitalists like Murray Rothbard and David Friedman who entirely repudiate the role of the State and look to the market as a means of ensuring social order".
  4. a b et c Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: SAGE Publications. p. 1006. (ISBN 1412988764).
  5. Wündisch 2014.
  6. Jeffrey H. Reiman, « The Fallacy of Libertarian Capitalism », Ethics, vol. 10, no 1,‎ , p. 85–95 (DOI 10.1086/292300, JSTOR 2380706, lire en ligne)
  7. a et b (en) Saul Newman, The Politics of Postanarchism, Édimbourg, Edinburgh University Press, , 53 p. (ISBN 978-0-7486-3495-8, lire en ligne)

    « It is important to distinguish between anarchism and certain strands of right-wing libertarianism which at times go by the same name (for example, Murray Rothbard's anarcho-capitalism). There is a complex debate within this tradition between those like Robert Nozick, who advocate a 'minimal state', and those like Rothbard who want to do away with the state altogether and allow all transactions to be governed by the market alone. From an anarchist perspective, however, both positions—the minimal state (minarchist) and the no-state ('anarchist') positions—neglect the problem of economic domination; in other words, they neglect the hierarchies, oppressions, and forms of exploitation that would inevitably arise in a laissez-faire 'free' market. [...] Anarchism, therefore, has no truck with this right-wing libertarianism, not only because it neglects economic inequality and domination, but also because in practice (and theory) it is highly inconsistent and contradictory. The individual freedom invoked by right-wing libertarians is only a narrow economic freedom within the constraints of a capitalist market, which, as anarchists show, is no freedom at all. »

  8. (es) « Libertarismo y deber. Una reflexión sobre la ética de Nozick » [« Libertarianism and duty. A reflection on Nozick's ethics »], Revista de ciencias sociales, vol. 91,‎ , p. 123–128 (ISSN 0210-0223, lire en ligne)
  9. Kymlicka 2005, p. 516. "Right-wing libertarians argue that the right of self-ownership entails the right to appropriate unequal parts of the external world, such as unequal amounts of land".
  10. Fred Miller, « Natural Law », sur The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, (consulté le )
  11. Sterba, James P. (October 1994). "From Liberty to Welfare". Ethics. Cambridge: Blackwell. 105 (1): 237–241.
  12. Leon P. Baradat, Political Ideologies, Routledge, , 384 p. (ISBN 978-1-317-34555-8, lire en ligne), page 31
  13. Peter Vallentyne, Liberalism : Old and New : Volume 24, New York, Cambridge University Press, , 338 p. (ISBN 978-0-521-70305-5, lire en ligne), « Libertarianism and the State »,page 6, "The best-known versions of libertarianism are right-libertarian theories, which hold that agents have a very strong moral power to acquire full private property rights in external things. Left-libertarians, by contrast, hold that natural resources (e.g., space, land, minerals, air, and water) belong to everyone in some egalitarian manner and thus cannot be appropriated without the consent of, or significant payment to, the members of society."
  14. a b et c Murray Rothbard, The Betrayal of the American Right, Mises Institute, (1re éd. 2007) (ISBN 978-1-61016-501-3, lire en ligne), p. 83

    « One gratifying aspect of our rise to some prominence is that, for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy. 'Libertarians' had long been simply a polite word for left-wing anarchists, that is for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over. »

  15. Bookchin, Murray (January 1986). "The Greening of Politics: Toward a New Kind of Political Practice". Green Perspectives: Newsletter of the Green Program Project (1). "We have permitted cynical political reactionaries and the spokesmen of large corporations to pre-empt these basic libertarian American ideals. We have permitted them not only to become the specious voice of these ideals such that individualism has been used to justify egotism; the pursuit of happiness to justify greed, and even our emphasis on local and regional autonomy has been used to justify parochialism, insularism, and exclusivity – often against ethnic minorities and so-called deviant individuals. We have even permitted these reactionaries to stake out a claim to the word libertarian, a word, in fact, that was literally devised in the 1890s in France by Elisée Reclus as a substitute for the word anarchist, which the government had rendered an illegal expression for identifying one's views. The propertarians, in effect – acolytes of Ayn Rand, the earth mother of greed, egotism, and the virtues of property – have appropriated expressions and traditions that should have been expressed by radicals but were willfully neglected because of the lure of European and Asian traditions of socialism, socialisms that are now entering into decline in the very countries in which they originated".
  16. (en) Max Nettlau, A Short History of Anarchism, Londres, Freedom Press, , 406 p. (ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9, OCLC 37529250), p. 162
  17. Fernandez, Frank (2001). Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement. Sharp Press. p. 9. "Thus, in the United States, the once exceedingly useful term "libertarian" has been hijacked by egotists who are in fact enemies of liberty in the full sense of the word."
  18. "The Week Online Interviews Chomsky". Z Magazine. 23 February 2002. "The term libertarian as used in the US means something quite different from what it meant historically and still means in the rest of the world. Historically, the libertarian movement has been the anti-statist wing of the socialist movement. In the US, which is a society much more dominated by business, the term has a different meaning. It means eliminating or reducing state controls, mainly controls over private tyrannies. Libertarians in the US don't say let's get rid of corporations. It is a sort of ultra-rightism."
  19. Ward, Colin (2004). Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 62. "For a century, anarchists have used the word 'libertarian' as a synonym for 'anarchist', both as a noun and an adjective. The celebrated anarchist journal Le Libertaire was founded in 1896. However, much more recently the word has been appropriated by various American free-market philosophers."
  20. Robert Graham, Anarchism : A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, vol. Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300 CE–1939), Montréal, Black Rose Books, , §17
  21. Marshall, Peter (2009). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. p. 641. "The word 'libertarian' has long been associated with anarchism, and has been used repeatedly throughout this work. The term originally denoted a person who upheld the doctrine of the freedom of the will; in this sense, Godwin was not a 'libertarian', but a 'necessitarian'. It came however to be applied to anyone who approved of liberty in general. In anarchist circles, it was first used by Joseph Déjacque as the title of his anarchist journal Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social published in New York in 1858. At the end of the last century, the anarchist Sebastien Faure took up the word, to stress the difference between anarchists and authoritarian socialists".
  22. The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective (11 December 2008). "150 years of Libertarian". Anarchist Writers. The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  23. The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective (17 May 2017). "160 years of Libertarian". Anarchist Writers. Anarchist FAQ. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  24. Marshall, Peter (2009). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. p. 641. "For a long time, libertarian was interchangable in France with anarchism but in recent years, its meaning has become more ambivalente. Some anarchists like Daniel Guérin will call themselves 'libertarian socialists', partly to avoid the negative overtones still associated with anarchism, and partly to stress the place of anarchism within the socialist tradition. Even Marxists of the New Left like E. P. Thompson call themselves 'libertarian' to distinguish themselves from those authoritarian socialists and communists who believe in revolutionary dictatorship and vanguard parties."
  25. Gwendal Châton, « Entre revendication artiste et gramscisme de droite : le cinéma de Clint Eastwood comme apologie du libertarianisme américain », Quaderni. Communication, technologies, pouvoir, no 86,‎ , p. 39–54 (ISSN 2105-2956, DOI 10.4000/quaderni.863, lire en ligne, consulté le )

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